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学位英语完型填空练习及答案

2015-07-23 16:57  网络 【 】【我要纠错

There are 20 blanks in the following passage. For each blank there are our choices marked [A], [B], [C] and [D] below the paper. You should choose the ONE that best fits into the passage. Then mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre.

A land free from destruction, plus wealth, natural resources, and labor supply-all these were important [1] in helping England to become the center for the Industrial Revolution.

[2] they were not enough. Something [3] was needed to start the industrial process. That "something special" was men [4] individual who could invent machines, find new [5] of power, and establish business organizations to reshape society. The men who [6] the machines of the Industrial Revolution [7] from many backgrounds and many occupations. Many of them were [8] inventors than scientists. A man who is a [9] scientist is primarily interested in doing his research [10]. He is not necessarily working [11] that his findings can be used.

An inventor or one interested in applied science is [12] trying to make something that has a concrete [13]. He may try to solve a problem by using the theories [14] science or by experimenting through trial and error. Regardless of his method, he is working to obtain a [15] result: the construction of a harvesting machine, the burning of a light bulb, or one of [16] other objectives.

Most of the people who [17] the machines of the Industrial Revolution were inventors, not trained scientists. A few were both scientists and inventors. Even those who had [18] or no training in science might not have made their inventions [19] a ground-work had not been laid by scientists years [20].

1. A.cases B.reasons C.factors D.situations

Best Answer: C

详解:【译文】领土完整,物产丰富,自然资源及劳动力充足——这些都是促使英国成为工业革命的中心的重要因素。

【注释】factor意为“因素”,符合题意。case“情况、事实”,例如:That's not the case.(那可不是事实。)reason“理由”,例如:If you ask for leave when at university, the teacher may ask you: For what reason? 而situation表示“情况”,因此这三项不合语义。

2. A.But B.And C.Besides D.Even

Best Answer: A

详解:【译文】但是这些因素还不够。

【注释】从上下文意思来看,只能选But,表示转折关系。选择连接词须瞻前顾后。此处意为除了上述因素——领土、物产、自然资源、劳动力外,还有别的因素使英国成为工业革命的中心。第二句与第一句遥相呼应。此外,像in contrast, on the other hand, however, whereas, while, instead, rather than等词语所串接的前后文,也在内容上相反,但在信息上互补。因此,我们可以通过第一、二句所表达的内容来确定选择连接词but.

3. A.else B.near C.extra D.similar

Best Answer: A

详解:【译文】还需要一些别的东西来开始工业革命的进程。

【注释】副词else常用在疑问代词或不定代词之后,起形容词作用,表示other的意思,意为“其他、别的、另外”。例如:Do you want anything else?(你还要什么别的东西吗?)I want nothing else.(别的我什么也不要。)

4. A.generating B.effective C.motivating D.creative

Best Answer: D

详解:【译文】那种特别的东西就是人——有创造性的个人。

【注释】creative意为“有创造性的”,符合题意。其他三个干扰词与其意义相差甚远。

5. A.origins B.sources C.bases D.discoveries

Best Answer: B

详解:【译文】这些人能发明新机器,找到新能源,建立商业组织,进而重建整个社会。

【注释】source意为“源泉”,如new sources of power(新能源),符合题意。其他三个干扰词与其意义相差甚远。bases“基础”,所指的“基础”是具体的,例如:the base of a building(建筑的基础)。与该词对应的basis所指的“基础”是抽象的,例如:the economic basis(经济基础)。

6. A.employed B.created C.operated D.controlled

Best Answer: B

详解:【译文】工业革命中,发明新机器的人出身背景不同,他们从事的职业也不同。

【注释】根据上一段"creative individuals who could invent machines",可知本题指的是"the men who created the machines",意为“创造或发明机器的人”。

7. A.came B.arrived C.stemmed D.appeared

Best Answer: A

详解:【译文】工业革命中,发明新机器的人出身背景不同,他们从事的职业也不同。

【注释】come from意为“出生在(某地);产自(某地)(=have as a birthplace, place of origin)”,符合题意。例如:The old man comes from Sichuan(那位老人是四川人)。stem from意为“来自;由……而产生(=have as origin; arise from)”,例如:This idiom stems from an ancient Greek fable.(此成语源目一则古希腊神话故事。)Errors of this kind usually stem from carelessness,(这一类的错误通常是由于粗心大意造成的。)

8. A.less B.better C.more D.worse

Best Answer: C

详解:【译文】他们中的许多人与其说是科学家,不如说是发明家。

【注释】根据语境,本空格是决定取舍。汉语“与其……不如……”是很有用的句式,它能帮助我们肯定一面,否定另一面,把意思表达得更确切。英语中与此成等义关系的表达方式即为"more…than…"。此结构常用来比较同一个人或同一个事物的两种不同性质、特征等。more后是肯定的一面,而than后是否定的一面。其变体是:better…than…; less…than…; not so much…as…。其用法如下:1)He is more clever than diligent.(与其说他勤奋,不如说他聪明。)2)He is a better writer than a scholar.(与其说她是学者,不如说她是作家。)本句肯定前者(better…),否定后者(than…)。3)He was less hurt than frightened. (=He was not so much hurt as frightened.=He was more frightened than hurt.)(他颇受惊吓而未受伤。)本句less后含否定的意思,than后含肯定意思。4)He is not so much a writer as a reporter.与其说他是个作家,不如说他是个记者。)本句"not so much…as…"句式否定前者而肯定后者。根据上述用法,排除D)项worse…than…(比……更坏……),排除A)项less…than…,因为文中意思是肯定前者

9. A.genuine B.practical C.pure D.clever

Best Answer: C

详解:【译文】理论科学家主要是对做研究工作的准确性感兴趣。

【注释】pure意为“纯理论的(非实用的)”,符合题意。例如:pure science“理论科学”,和它对应的是applied science“应用科学”。genuine“真正的,真实的”,例如:a genuine picture by Rubens(鲁宾斯的真画),genuine pearls(真珍珠)。practical“实用的”。

10. A.happily B.occasionally C.reluctantly D.accurately

Best Answer: D

详解:【译文】理论科学家主要是对做研究工作的准确性感兴趣。

【注释】本题问做研究工作的程度。accurately意为“准确地”,doing his research accurately强调做研究工作的准确性,符合题意。不是happily“高兴(做)”;不是reluctantly“不情愿(做)”;也不是occasionally“有时(做)”。

11. A.now B.and C.all D.so

Best Answer: D

详解:【译文】科学家工作并不一定是为了使他的发现得到应用。

【注释】排除B),and that在本句中无意义。而now that, seeing that, in that, not that…, but that, considering that等结构均引导原因状语从句,例如:Now that I have finished my lessons, I intend to go for a walk.(既然我已做完功课,我想去散步。)They did the job quite well, considering that they had no experience.(考虑到他们没有什么经验,他们干的还是不错。)all that后引出定语从句,例如:All that the he does, he does it well.(他做任何事都很出色。)而so that后引出目的或结果状语从句,例如:He worked hard so that he might win the prize.(目的)(他努力工作以图获奖。)It was very cold, so that the river froze.(结果)(天气寒冷,河水都结冰了。)本句so that后引起目的状语,符合题意。

12. A.seldom B.sometimes C.usually D.never

Best Answer: C

详解:【译文】对应用科学感兴趣的发明家通常试图制造出某种有具体用途的东西。

【注释】根据上文对理论科学家下的定义,便知下文(本段)是对应用科学家的一般看法,在意义上应采用usually,表示“通常”怎么样。其他三项干扰项与其意义相差甚远。

13. A.plan B.use C.idea D.means

Best Answer: B

详解:【译文】对应用科学感兴趣的发明家通常试图制造出某种有具体用途的东西。

【注释】a concrete use指所制造的机器的“具体用途”,符合题意。plan“计划”,idea“想法”,means“发明”。

14. A.of B.with C.to D.as

Best Answer:A

详解:【译文】发明家通过利用科学的理论或者反复做实验,经过尝试和错误,试图解决一个问题。

【注释】“名词+of+名词”结构一般来说是of后面的名词修饰前面的名词。The theories of science意为“科学的理论”,又如:the theory of evolution“进化论”,符合题意。

15. A.single B.sole C.specialized D.specific

Best Answer: D

详解:【译文】无论方法如何,他的工作是为了得到一个明确的结果:制造一台收割机,或使灯泡亮起来,或是解决一个其他问题。

【注释】specific意为“特别的,明确的”,其同义词为special, definite。本题to obtain a specific result意为“得到一个明确结果”,符合题意。其他三个干扰词均与题意不符。specialized“专门研究”,例如:specialize in economics“专攻经济学”。single意为 “单一的,单个的;单身的”。例如:a single ticket“单程票”。sole意为“唯一的,仅有的”,例如:Their sole aim is a quick return of profit and they are not particular about how they will obtain it.(这些人唯一目的就是尽快回收利润,用什么手段获得却是不予考虑的。)

16. A.few B.those C.many D.all

Best Answer: C

详解:【译文】无论方法如何,他的工作是为了得到一个明确的结果:制造一台收割机,或使灯泡亮起来,或是解决一个其他问题。

【注释】本题从few、those、many到all,从意义上我们不可能选择最大范围all,但可以选比较宽的范围many, one of many other objectives,指“许多其他目的中的一个”,符合题意。限定词other前面可带some、any、very、many、one、the、his等其他限定词。例如:Come some other day.(改天来吧。)Please write every other line.(请隔行写。)His other two sons went to the football game.(他另外两个儿子去看足球了。)

17. A.proposed B.developed C.supplied D.offered

Best Answer: B

详解:【译文】在工业革命中研制出机器的大部分人是发明家,而不是受过训练的科学家。

【注释】根据词义,propose“提议”,supply“供应”,offer“提供”,都不能和machine搭配,只有developed the machines“开发或研制出机器”符合题意。

18. A.little B.much C.some D.any

Best Answer: A

详解:【译文】一些人既是科学家,也是发明家。如果科学家在许多年前没有奠定科学的基础,那么那些几乎没有受过科学训练的人就可能不会做出什么发明。【注释】little or no意为“几乎没有,不多(=almost not)”,其同义词为little or nothing“几乎没有(=hardly anything)”,因此,固定搭配little or no符合题意。

19. A.as B.if C.because D.while

Best Answer: B

详解:【译文】一些人既是科学家,也是发明家。如果科学家在许多年前没有奠定科学的基础,那么那些几乎没有受过科学训练的人就可能不会做出什么发明。

【注释】根据虚拟条件句的语法规则,可知本句缺少连词"if",因此B)项为正确答案。

20. A.ago B.past C.ahead D.before

Best Answer: D

详解:【译文】一些人既是科学家,也是发明家。如果科学家在许多年前没有奠定科学的基础,那么那些几乎没有受过科学训练的人就可能不会做出什么发明。

【注释】排除B)、C)项,before同完成时或never连用,符合题意。例如:I never met him before.(我从没见过他。)I had met the man three years before.(距当时)三年前我见过那人一次。句中同before发生关系的动词用过去完成时。而ago则用于过去时,一般不能用于现在完成时。例如:I met him three years ago.(三年前我遇见过他。)

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